Unit IV Resaerch Paper

Please make sure that you follow all the teacher instruction beacuse she is a strict grader and you must follow the APA format that is require for this course. Make sure you watch out for spelling and grammar errors. This must be your own owrk and not copy and paste his is a DBA coure and the paper have to written on this level. Please read the sudy guide and Unit IV Intriduction

Book reference: Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Balkin, D. B., & Cardy, R. L. (2016). Managing human resources (8th ed.) [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780133953718 



In Unit III, you researched and analyzed the legal responsibilities of an organization and differences between diversity and affirmative action. You also examined challenges of managing diverse work teams and researched opportunities to improve the management of a diverse team.

For this assignment, you will reflect on the research you conducted and write a paper that addresses the items below.

  • Provide an introduction, and explain the role that human resources has in upholding legal responsibilities of an organization.
  • Identify and discuss at least two current equal employment opportunity laws.
  • Discuss the differences between management of diversity and affirmative action.
  • Describe the challenges in managing a diverse work team.
  • Provide examples of how the management of diverse teams can be improved within an organization.

Your research paper must be at least three pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages, and must include at least four peer-reviewed sources.

Be sure to support your research paper with the resources you located for your annotated bibliography in Unit III. Use APA style for your paper.


The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.


Unit IV Introduction

Recruiting and Selecting Employees

Human Resource Supply and Demand                              

Human resource planning is the process an organization uses to ensure that it has the right amount and the right kinds of people to deliver a particular level of output or services in the future.  Failures in HR planning can lead to labor shortages, layoffs, and significant financial costs.

A.  Forecasting Techniques  

There are two basic categories of forecasting techniques: qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative techniques have two main limitations. The first is that most rely heavily on past data or previous relations between staffing levels and other variables. The second is that most of these techniques are quite old and do not translate well in smaller organizations. Qualitative techniques, however, rely on expert judgments or subjective estimates of labor supply and demand.

  1. Methods of Forecasting Demand
  2. Quantitative techniques—regression analysis, ratio analysis
  3. Judgmental (qualitative) techniques—top-down approach, bottom-up approach
  4. Methods of Forecasting Supply
    1. Quantitative techniques—Markov analysis

                              b.  Judgmental techniques—executive reviews,
                                    succession planning, vacancy analysis

  1. The Hiring Process                                                                     

The hiring process has three components:  recruiting, selection, and socialization.

  1. Challenges in the Hiring Process                                              

Despite the obvious importance of selecting the best from the available talent, the hiring process is fraught with challenges.  The most important of these are:  determining what characteristics are most important to performance, measuring those characteristics, evaluating applicants’ motivation levels, and deciding who should make the selection decision.

A.  Determining the Characteristics Most Important to Performance

The characteristics important to performance are not always obvious because the job changes over time.  The culture of the organization may also play a role, and different people in the company may be looking for different things in a new employee. 

B.  Measuring the Characteristics That Determine Performance

Some tests are better than others at predicting job performance, and they can vary widely in cost.

C.  The Motivation Factor

Performance = Ability x Motivation

D.  Who Should Make the Decision?

Depending on the job it should be a combination of the HR department, the manager, and potentially the new hire’s subordinates.

  1. Meeting the Challenges of Effective Staffing                 

Choosing the right person for a job can make a tremendous difference in productivity and customer satisfaction.  Choosing the wrong person can result in sluggish operations and lost business and customers.  For these reasons it is important that each step of the staffing process be managed carefully.

A.     Recruitment                                                                 

Issues include sources and costs of recruitment, external versus internal candidates, recruiting protected classes, and planning the recruitment effort.

         1.   Nontraditional recruiting in the current labor market

         2.   External versus internal candidates

         3.   Recruiting protected classes                                         

         4.   Planning the recruitment effort

         5.   Planning your job search

B.     Selection                                                                      

Reliability and validity terms are important and defined here.  Extensive coverage is given to selection tools as predictors of job performance, as well as combining predictors, selection and total quality management, reactions to selection devices, and manager reactions to selection systems.

1.   Reliability and validity

2.   Selection tools as predictors of job performance

      a.         Letters of recommendation

      b.         Application forms

      c.         Ability tests

  1. Personality tests
  2. Honesty tests

      f.          Interviews                                                

g.         Assessment centers                                   

h.         Drug test

   i.          Reference checks

j.          Background checks

      k.         Handwriting analysis

3.   Combining predictors

4.   Selection and the person/organization fit

5.   Reactions to selection devices

      a.         Applicant reactions to selection devices

      b.         Manager reactions to selection systems

IV.    Legal Issues in Staffing                        

Legal concerns can play an exceptionally important role in staffing, particularly in selection.  Selection is affected by a number of legal constraints, most notably federal legislation and its definition of illegal discrimination.  Negligent hiring concerns have increased in recent years, and attention is given to that issue as well.

A.     Discrimination Laws

To lower the chances of lawsuits, firms should ensure that selection techniques are job related.  In other words, the best defense is evidence of the validity of the selection process.

B.     Affirmative Action

Federal Executive Order 11246 requires organizations that are government contractors or subcontractors to have affirmative action plans in place.

C.     Negligent Hiring

Negligent hiring refers to a situation in which an employer fails to use reasonable care in hiring an employee who then commits a crime while in his or her position in the organization. 

Conducting a termination or layoff is one of the most sensitive and difficult things that a manager will ever have to do.  There are a number of factors to consider when conducting this process, and the manner in which the termination or layoff is performed and managed has impact on not only the affected employee but also those who remain with the organization in its aftermath.  Additionally, many separations (voluntary or involuntary) can be avoided through good management practices.  The cost of separations to the organization are much higher than many people realize, making good management practices even more important.

Managing Employee Separations, Downsizing, and Outplacement

I.       What Are Employee Separations?                                      

An employee separation occurs when an employee ceases to be a member of an organization.  The rate of employee separations in an organization (the turnover rate) is a measure of the rate at which employees leave the firm. 

A.     The Costs of Employee Separations                                

There are always costs associated with employee separations.  The cost may be more or less, depending on whether managers intend to eliminate the position or to replace the departing employee.  Costs included in separations include recruitment costs, selection costs, training costs, and separation costs.

B.     The Benefits of Employee Separations                            

Although many people understand the costs of employee separations, there are benefits as well.  Some of the benefits of separations include reduced labor costs, replacement of poor performers, increased innovation, and opportunity for greater diversity.

II.     Types of Employee Separations                                          

Employee separations can be divided into two categories based on who initiates the termination of the employment relationship.  Voluntary separations (quits and retirements) are initiated by the employee.  Involuntary separations (discharges and layoffs) are initiated by the employer.

A.  Voluntary Separations 

Voluntary separations occur when an employee decides to end the relationship with the employer. These separations include quits and retirements.

B.     Involuntary Separations 

Involuntary separations occur when management decides to terminate its relationship with an employee due to economic necessity or a poor fit between the employee and the organization. Involuntary separations include discharges, layoffs, and downsizing and rightsizing.

III.    Managing Early Retirements                                      

When a company realizes that it needs to downsize its scale of operations, its first task is to examine alternatives to layoffs.  One of the most popular of these methods is early retirement.

A.     The Features of Early Retirement Policies

Early retirement policies consist of two features: (a) a package of financial incentives that make it attractive for senior employees to retire earlier than they planned and (b) an open window that restricts eligibility to a fairly short period.  After the window is closed, the incentives are no longer available to senior employees.

B.     Avoiding Problems with Early Retirements

Managing early retirement policies requires careful design, implementation, and administration.  When not properly managed, early retirement policies can cause a host of problems.  All managers with senior employees should make certain that they do not treat senior employees any differently than other employees.

IV.    Managing Layoffs                                                             

Generally, an organization will institute a layoff when it cannot reduce its labor costs by any other means.  Managers should first try to reduce labor costs with layoff alternatives.

A.     Alternatives to Layoffs 

There are many alternative methods of reducing labor costs that management should explore before deciding to conduct a layoff.  These alternatives include things such as changes in employment policies, job design, pay and benefits policies, and training.                                                          

B.     Implementing a Layoff                                         

A layoff can be a traumatic event that affects the lives of thousands of people, so managers must implement the layoff carefully.  Issues that need to be considered include notifying employees, developing layoff criteria, communicating with laid-off employees, coordinating media relations, maintaining security, and reassuring survivors of the layoff.

V.     Outplacement                                                    

Outplacement is a human resource program created to help separated employees deal with the emotional stress of job loss and to provide assistance in finding a new job.

A.     The Goals of Outplacement

The goals of outplacement reflect the organization’s need to maintain employee productivity.  The most important of these goals are (1) reducing the morale problems of employees who will be laid off so that they will remain productive, (2) minimizing the amount of litigation initiated by separated employees, and (3) assisting separated employees in quickly finding comparable jobs.

B.     Outplacement Services

The most common outplacement services provided to separated employees are emotional support and job-search assistance.  These services can help achieve the goals of outplacement.

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